The film Tous les matins du monde (1991) made me discover simultaneously Jordi Savall, the viol and the music of Sainte-Colombe and Marin Marais. I later purchased the CD of the movie soundtrack and that is when I really heard Une jeune fillette, which left an indelible impression on me.
The melody was very popular in the Renaissance but probably dates back to an earlier time. In France, it first appeared in the collection of songs "en forme de voix de ville" published by Jehan Chardavoine in 1576, but it was also known in Italy as Madre mia non mi far monaca: both the French and Italian lyrics tell the story of a young girl forced into a nunnery.
It is a prime example of an "evergreen tune", not only because it has spread geographically under various guises (our previous Huron carol is no accident since there is at least one French carol in the Lorraine region -- Une jeune baisselle, in the local dialect -- which is based on that melody), but also because it has inpired many musicians and composers up to the present day. I hope to post a few ukulele adaptations of Renaissance compositions, but for now, here is the bare bone traditional melody for re-entrant tuning in TablEdit tabs and the PDF file.